Fourth Sunday of Easter

Reflection: Easter season a time to refresh


The spring season refreshes, revives and reinvigorates the natural world.

Remnants of winter snows melt away, streams swell with runoff, days become longer as nights grow shorter, flowers blossom and baby birds fledge.

Is it no wonder that the liturgical season of Easter occurs during the season of spring? The newness of life so lush during these two seasons invites us to reconsider the image of the divine as shepherd presented in this Sunday’s responsorial psalm and the Gospel reading of John.

These seasons of new life also invite us to reconsider the theology of sacrifice and the theology of the cross presented in the second reading from 1 Peter and embedded in the Christian tradition.

It is time to press the “refresh” button on these three topics.

The image of the divine as a good shepherd in Psalm 23 and John 10:1-10 is a beloved one. But as beloved as the image of shepherd and sheep is among biblical readers, the metaphors are problematic. Comparing the divine to a shepherd and people to sheep sets up a hierarchical relationship between humans and the divine and reduces the intelligence of humans who, if like sheep, will always be dependent, subservient and deprived of full agency.

Heard in the context of the Roman Catholic Church today, where bishops and other Vatican officials view themselves as “shepherds,” the reading supports their efforts and expectations to have people follow them unreservedly.

Hence, new images for the human-divine relationship need to come to the fore. Of note, the Gospel reading reflects a pre-Resurrection time, whereas the Lukan narrative that describes the walk to Emmaus, featuring Christ walking with the two people on the road, is a post-Resurrection narrative. We are post-Resurrection, and even post-Pentecost people.

The second reading, 1 Peter 3:20b-25, depicts Peter preaching to the early Christians and expounding on the suffering endured by Christ, to the point of crucifixion. Peter the preacher affirms Christ’s suffering, connects it to the call and mission of being a Christian, encourages people to suffer as Christ suffered, and challenges people to follow in Christ’s footsteps.

Christianity has long maintained that Christ’s suffering is vicarious, that Jesus was a substitution who was punished to pay for humanity’s sins and reconcile humanity to God. The cross, then, becomes the ultimate sacrifice for atonement.

The message preached by Peter and read during the Easter season in not good news. Embedded in Peter’s understanding of suffering and the cross is the inherent support for violence.

Christ’s crucifixion understood as vicarious suffering is nothing to be celebrated and certainly not to be “spiritualized.” The Roman occupying power is inscribed into the divine story of salvation that then idealizes the victim of a totalitarian regime. The victim’s suffering is then interpreted by Peter the preacher as a sacrifice of salvation.

This preaching is re-inscribed into the minds and beliefs of preachers throughout the centuries who, in turn, preach this reality as if it is good news and the fulfillment of the Christian vocation. Guilty parties responsible for the crucifixion of an innocent person are not held accountable, and the acceptance of this suffering, now looked upon as a redemptive act, normalizes violence and encourages the acceptance of structures and attitudes that create victims. These structures and attitudes continue to exist and go unchecked and uncriticized.

The seasons of spring and Easter invite us to become liberated from toxic theology whose spiritual effects anesthetize us to unjust crucifixions happening daily in our world today.

This season of life beckons us to choose life, to do our internal spring cleaning and gardening, to leave no stone unturned, to uproot and root out oppressive religious images theologies, so that room can be made for the Spirit to transform internally and externally our belief systems and their related structures.

Reading 1

(Acts 2: 14a, 36-41)

Then Peter stood up with the Eleven,
raised his voice, and proclaimed:
“Let the whole house of Israel know for certain
that God has made both Lord and Christ,
this Jesus whom you crucified.”
Now when they heard this, they were cut to the heart,
and they asked Peter and the other apostles,
“What are we to do, my brothers?”
Peter said to them,
“Repent and be baptized, every one of you,
in the name of Jesus Christ for the forgiveness of your sins;
and you will receive the gift of the Holy Spirit.
For the promise is made to you and to your children
and to all those far off,
whomever the Lord our God will call.”
He testified with many other arguments, and was exhorting them,
“Save yourselves from this corrupt generation.”
Those who accepted his message were baptized,
and about three thousand persons were added that day.

Responsorial psalm

(Psalm 23 1-6)

R. The Lord is my shepherd; there is nothing I shall want.

The LORD is my shepherd; I shall not want.
In verdant pastures he gives me repose;
beside restful waters he leads me;
he refreshes my soul.
R. The Lord is my shepherd; there is nothing I shall want.

He guides me in right paths
for his name’s sake.
Even though I walk in the dark valley
I fear no evil; for you are at my side.
With your rod and your staff
that give me courage.
R. The Lord is my shepherd; there is nothing I shall want.

You spread the table before me
in the sight of my foes;
you anoint my head with oil;
my cup overflows.
R. The Lord is my shepherd; there is nothing I shall want.

Only goodness and kindness follow me
all the days of my life;
and I shall dwell in the house of the LORD
for years to come.
R. The Lord is my shepherd; there is nothing I shall want.

Reading 2

(1 Peter 2: 20b-25)

If you are patient when you suffer for doing what is good,
this is a grace before God.
For to this you have been called,
because Christ also suffered for you,
leaving you an example that you should follow in his footsteps.
He committed no sin, and no deceit was found in his mouth.
When he was insulted, he returned no insult;
when he suffered, he did not threaten;
instead, he handed himself over to the one who judges justly.
He himself bore our sins in his body upon the cross,
so that, free from sin, we might live for righteousness.
By his wounds you have been healed.
For you had gone astray like sheep,
but you have now returned to the shepherd and guardian of your souls.


(John 10: 1-10)

Jesus said:
“Amen, amen, I say to you,
whoever does not enter a sheepfold through the gate
but climbs over elsewhere is a thief and a robber.
But whoever enters through the gate is the shepherd of the sheep.
The gatekeeper opens it for him, and the sheep hear his voice,
as the shepherd calls his own sheep by name and leads them out.
When he has driven out all his own,
he walks ahead of them, and the sheep follow him,
because they recognize his voice.
But they will not follow a stranger;
they will run away from him,
because they do not recognize the voice of strangers.”
Although Jesus used this figure of speech,
the Pharisees did not realize what he was trying to tell them.
So Jesus said again, “Amen, amen, I say to you,
I am the gate for the sheep.
All who came before me are thieves and robbers,
but the sheep did not listen to them.
I am the gate.
Whoever enters through me will be saved,
and will come in and go out and find pasture.
A thief comes only to steal and slaughter and destroy;
I came so that they might have life and have it more abundantly.”